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Webinars-Surface Area, Density, & Pore Size

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Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry for Pore Volume and Pore Size Distribution Measurements
Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry remains the only method capable of measuring the volume and sizes of pores within materials over the extremely large range of 3 nanometers to 950 microns. This webinar will be a brief overview of the industries that use this technique, how it works, and the safe and proper manner in which to apply it in practice.


Capillary Flow Porometry in the Biomedical Industry
Capillary Flow Porometry for fast, easy, accurate predictions of biomedical membrane performance.

There is a wide range of filtration applications within the biomedical industry. I.V. filters provide safe delivery of infusion therapies by trapping out particulate matter while ensuring proper flow. Blood filters remove clots and aggregates from stored blood sources prior to delivery to a patient. Barrier layers used in implantable devices permit the flow of preferred blood components into and out of the device while keeping undesired components out. All of these processes, and many more like them, are carried out within the through pores of the membranes used in biomedical devices.


 Applying Pressure: Applications of Static and Dynamic High-Pressure Gas Sorption for Gas Capture, Storage, and Separation
Use of adsorbents, both naturally occurring and synthetic, for the capture and storage of gasses has been of interest for many years. Removal of CO2 and other greenhouse gasses from industrial effluent is an important process for reducing the amount of these greenhouse gasses released into the atmosphere. Storage of CO2 for use in subsequent processes or for sequestration is just as important as its removal. Storage of H2 and CH4, among other gasses is important in the transport and use of alternative fuels. Removal of CO2 from CH4 or H2 is another application where adsorbents play a critical role. High-pressure gas sorption is a valuable tool for the selection and optimization of these adsorbents. This Webinar discusses some recent works in these areas, where both static and dynamic high-pressure gas sorption was used for the characterization and evaluation of these adsorbents.


Structural Characterization of Novel Platforms for the Controlled Release of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
Recent advances in nanoscience have had a tremendous impact on pharmaceutical technology. In particular, the advent of biocompatible nanomaterials with tailorable pore structure has opened up many new pathways to control the release of active drugs into living organisms. These advances in materials science have been paralleled by equally innovative developments in pore structure characterization techniques. Accordingly, the surface area, pore volume, microporosity and mesoporosity of many pharmaceutical products have already demonstrated key correlations with effective drug loading and controlled release kinetics.


The Importance of Surface Area in Pharmaceuticals
The substances comprising pharmaceutical solid dosage forms, API's and excipients, have crucially important physical characteristics - the dominant one seems to be particle size according to industry practice. This webinar however will discuss the importance of surface area as both a parameter to be tracked during processing and its role in dissolution.


Food Texture: More Than Just Mouthfeel
Foodstuffs are often characterized by mouthfeel (crunchiness, creaminess, gumminess, etc.), with many relevant parameters being textural in nature. But understanding how foodstuffs behave outside the mouth is also extremely important to successfully carry out and optimize industrial food processing, packaging and storage tasks. This webinar will discuss how surface area, porosity, pore size, density and interactions with atmospheric moisture can be quantified under controlled analytical conditions to optimize food product texture.


Working with Vapors and Low Concentrations in Breakthrough Experiment
Many industrial adsorptive separation processes are dealing with vapors and/or adsorption of components with very low concentrations. Many ongoing phenomena can only be observed and quantified in gas flow experiments. For low concentrations, Co-adsorption effects become highly important. The measurement of breakthrough curves allows to see displacement phenomena and to evaluate the technically usable sorption capacity under process-near conditions. The adsorption of water and organic vapors, as well as vapor mixtures and also the removal of CO2 from air have been investigated with the dynaSorb BT among other examples.


Capillary Flow Porometry- Important Factors For Optimum Data Accuracy
Capillary flow porometry provides a fast, accurate way to measure the properties of a material that relate to its filtration and permeability characteristics. The technique is based on a well-known physical phenomenon, the Washburn equation, but involves a number of measurement variables that will affect the final result. In order to best apply this technique, and quickly predict the material’s ultimate performance, the assumptions about these variables must be chosen appropriately. This presentation will introduce these variables to you and provide you with some initial guidance regarding how best to apply the technique to the materials with which you work.


What is that Peak?:
Use of a Mass Spectrometer to Identify Components in the Effluent of a Chemisorption Analyzer.

When interpreting the results of a chemisorption experiment, especially a TPR or TPO where multiple products of the reaction are possible, it is not always obvious which component is represented by which peak. Sometimes one component can be selectively removed from the effluent in a cold trap of the appropriate temperature; however, in many cases this is not possible. Using a mass spectrometer to identify the mass of each component of the effluent can often unambiguously determine the nature of these products. This webinar will look as some of these applications and highlight the advantages of using a mass spectrometer with a chemisorption analyzer.


To Cool or not to Cool?:
87 kelvin, a temperature with special significance for porous materials characterization

IUPAC recently recommended the preferential use of argon at liquid argon temperature for micropore characterization. Thin film mesopores can also be characterized using krypton also at liquid argon temperature. This webinar will present the scientific reasoning behind both cases, and compare and contrast experimental means for creating 87.3 K, the normal boiling point of liquefied argon.


Graphene and Related Materials: Surface Areas and Pore Dimensions from 2D-Nanostructures
There is no question that carbon materials in general, and graphene materials as of late, continue to push the boundaries of fundamental physics and practical materials science to previously unforeseen levels. Graphene materials in particular have already been shown to exhibit exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties that are to a large extent related to their surface area and porous nature. Considering a single layer of 2-dimensional graphene, in which all carbon atoms are in fact surface atoms, poses unique challenges in terms of assessing surface properties and quantifying intra- and inter-layer pores. This presentation examines the factors that impact surface area and pore structure assessment in graphene materials, and provides guidelines for characterization improvements based on recent analytical instrument advances and IUPAC recommendations.


Measuring the Density of Solid Materials.
Understanding the density, or mass per unit volume, of a solid material is crucial for development, manufacturing, processing, and quality control efforts. Whether you are interested in the amount of a powder that you can pack into a given canister, gaining a quick assessment of the consistency of your product, or understanding the open/closed cell content of your foam sample, a quick accurate assessment of the material density is an essential assistant. But not all densities are the same. In this webinar we will discuss different types of densities: Bulk or Tapped Density, Envelope or Apparent Density, True or Skeletal Density, and how they are measured.


Hot Topics in Temperature Programmed Analysis
The class of flow analysis techniques based on monitoring a chemical reaction (reduction, oxidation, or decomposition) as the temperature is increased is a very versatile and powerful toolbox for the characterization of catalysts and other chemically active surfaces. These techniques, known as Temperature Programed methods (TPx) includes Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO), Temperature Programmed Decomposition (TPD). TPx methods can quantitate the number of active sites as well as provide insight into the relative strengths of the sites. This webinar will review some of these methods, the information that can be gained from them, and some hints on their implementation.


Digging into Shale Nanostructure
Nanostructure characterization of shales has received tremendous interest in recent years. In this webinar we will demonstrate that a combination of various complementary experimental techniques including gas adsorption, mercury porosimetry, and pycnometry, coupled with state-of-the-art data interpretation lead to deep insights into shale pore network structure.


High Pressure Gas Adsorption for Advanced Gas Storage and Porous Materials Characterization Applications
We will review important aspects concerning the theoretical and experimental background of high pressure adsorption experiments. Furthermore, we focus on the correlation between structural characteristics of nanoporous materials coupled with the states of bulk and confined phases of the adsorptive/adsorbate and the shape of surface excess/absolute and total adsorption isotherms. This will be discussed in particular within the context of gas storage applications.


Getting Your Feet Wet with Water Vapor Sorption Applications
Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS) is a technique well known to the pharmaceutical and food industries, and has many applications in building materials, ceramics, and other areas. Many water sorption applications traditionally relegated to DVS instruments, can be performed considerably faster using vacuum-volumetric vapor sorption, but there are some limitations. In this Webinar we will explore the many applications of water sorption analysis and discuss when DVS is more appropriate and when vacuum-volumetric is preferred.


Investigation of Industrial Adsorbents by Gas Flow Methods
Industrial adsorbents such as active carbons, zeolites and silica gels are widely used in adsorptive separation processes on a multi-ton scale. A complete understanding of the complex processes taking place in a fixed bed reactor is the key in order to achieve the best separation performance. Measuring breakthrough curves on the lab-scale provides insights into these processes that are only accessible by dynamic methods.


Cements, Mortars, and Grouts: The Hard Facts About Characterization
Metrology of cementitious materials is critical to the quality of the product and can make the difference between a bridge or building lasting for decades and one that is crumbling in a few years. Characterization of raw materials is important in ensuring the quality of the final cured product, but also characterization of the cured cement or mortar can provide valuable feedback to the process. This Webinar will explore methods of pore size analysis, surface area determination, and water sorption measurement, as well as other characteristics critical to preparation of cements, mortars, and grouts.


Pore Size Characterization of Filtration Materials
Filtration via membranes is one of the simplest and therefore most widely used separation techniques in real world applications. In addition to simply understanding the largest pore size present (known as the bubble point), controlling the pore sizedistribution of the through pores allows for more specific design of transport properties. The use of analytical instruments like acapillary expulsion porometer will describe the ultimate sizes of the “through pores” in membranes to understand particulate rejectionperformance. A sense of the pore volume, typically characterized with the use of a three-dimensional technique such as mercury intrusion, is also important to the structural integrity and mechanical properties of the final membrane. Understanding these characteristics is crucial in the development of systems intended to remove particulate materials of specified size ranges. This webinar will provide an introductoryoverview of the role that pore size plays in the filtration process and how capillary expulsion porometry and mercury intrusion techniques are used to describe the pore structure of membranes.


Textural Characterization of Battery Materials
The ongoing incremental needs of battery-powered devices require the development of more powerful and safer energy technologies. Over the last decade, smarter synthesis procedures facilitated advances in the development of novel porous materials with tailorable structural and surface properties, which have clearly the potential to significantly improve the efficiency, performance and durability of various batteries, fuel cells and other energy storage devices. In order to support and optimize these design efforts, it is imperative to accurately characterize the physico-chemical properties of these materials with regard to surface area, pore network structure, pore size and pore volume distribution, and density. We will discuss key aspects and ongoing challenges regarding the state-of-the-art structural characterization of battery materials by applying a combination of experimental techniques including gas adsorption (coupled with advanced theoretical methods for data analysis), mercury porosimetry, capillary flow porometry and gas pycnometry.


Textural Properties of Pharmaceuticals: Significance of Surface Area, Pore Size, Density & Flowability
Successful pharmaceutical solid formulations rely on much more than just the pharmacological effectiveness of the active ingredient. Physical properties have a tremendous impact on blending, tableting and bioavailability for example. Powder particle size of starting materials and tablet hardness and crush strength of final product are known to be of great importance and therefore extensively measured. However there’s more to proper material selection and processing than just characterizing the end members as it were. Textural properties such as surface area, porosity, pore size and density are equally important and can be applied to intermediate materials such as blended powders and granules. This webinar will introduce the reasons why these textural and related properties are of interest, how to get the best quality data from a measurement and what the results mean.


New IUPAC Recommendations for Physical Adsorption Characterization
Gas physisorption measurements are an important tool for the characterization of porous solids and fine powders. Hence the publication, in 1985, of an IUPAC report dedicated to the determination of surface area and porosity by physical adsorption received a lot of attention. Indeed, the recommendations in the 1985 report have been broadly followed and referred to by the scientific and industrial community. Over the past 25 years major advances have been made in the development of nanoporous materials with uniform, tailor-made pore structures (e.g., mesoporous molecular sieves, carbon nanotubes and nanohorns, microporous-mesoporous carbons and silicas with hierarchical pore structures). Their characterization has required the development of high resolution experimental protocols for adsorption of nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and krypton. Furthermore, novel procedures based on density functional theory and molecular simulation (e.g., Monte-Carlo simulations) have been developed to allow a more accurate and comprehensive pore structural analysis to be obtained from high resolution physisorption data. It is evident that these new procedures, terms and concepts now necessitate the updating and extension of the 1985 recommendations.

Consequently an international, well-balanced, IUPAC task group (Committee members: M. Thommes (chairman) K. Kaneko, A.V. Neimark, J.P. Olivier, F. Rodriguez-Reinoso, J. Rouquerol, and K.S.W. Sing) was established in 2010 and has now completed their work. The new recommendations which have just been published provide (i) authoritative, up-to-date guidance on gas physisorption methodology and (ii) draw attention to the advantages and limitations of using physisorption techniques for studying solid surfaces and pore structures with particular reference to the determination of surface area and pore size distribution.

In this Webinar Dr. Matthias Thommes will introduce and discuss important aspects of the new IUPAC Technical report: “Physisorption of Gases, with Special Reference to the Evaluation of Surface Area and Pore Size Distribution”. Pure and Applied Chemistry DOI: 10.1515/pac-2014-1117, (2015)


Catalysts - Important Aspects of Chemical Adsorption Characterization
The ever increasing demand to develop highly efficient catalytic processes in many different industries including the automotive, petro-chemical, pharmaceutical and food processing ones coincides with the necessity to minimize their environmental impact (air/soil pollution, waste storage and elimination, harmful by-products, …). Increasingly strict emission/safety regulations coupled with fluctuating metal and rare earth prices create novel challenges for the development of innovative and cost-competitive (emission) catalysts. As a result, comprehensive characterization of such materials has become mandatory in order to optimize their efficiency. Among the portfolio of available techniques, chemical adsorption characterization play a crucial role as accurate assessment of the effective adsorbed quantities in realistic conditions as well as knowledge about active metal area, metal dispersion, crystallite size, heats of adsorption and acid sites strength is, more than ever, of prime importance. In this Webinar, we will review important aspects and current challenges regarding the state-of-the-art chemical adsorption characterization of these high-added value materials. A brief reminder about physical adsorption characterization of supported catalysts will also be discussed.


Physical Adsorption Characterization of MOFs (Metal Organic Framework) Materials
Several classes of new hybrid porous solids such as metal-organic framework materials (MOFs), zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) as well as so-called covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted a lot of attention during recent years. These novel nanomaterials are candidates for many applications due to their chemical versatility and distinctive adsorption properties.

Despite the fact that hybrid porous materials such as MOFs, ZIFs, etc. are crystalline, various factors can contribute to deviations from perfect crystalline structure. For example, reduced pore volumes can be due to nonvolatile reactants in the pores, partial collapse, and/or other activation related problems. Hence, an advanced physical adsorption characterization is crucial for accurately assessing the effective pore sizes, pore size distribution, pore volumes and apparent surface areas of MOFs, ZIFs, COFs, and related materials. We will discuss in this Webinar progress and challenges in the physical adsorption characterization of these important materials class.


Advances in the physical adsorption characterization of mesoporous zeolites
Comprehensive textural characterization of nanoporous materials has become more important than ever for the optimization of novel systems used in many important existing and potentially new applications. Applications of hierarchical nanoporous materials such as mesoporous zeolites require an in-depth pore structural characterization. Detailed insights about the pore architecture (e.g., pore size, pore size distribution, pore volume, and pore interconnectivity) are particularly important because they control transport phenomena and diffusional rates and govern selectivity in catalyzed reactions.

The most popular method to obtain surface area, pore size, pore size distribution and porosity information from powders and porous solids is gas adsorption. Despite the major progress achieved in the field of physical adsorption characterization during the last 20 years, new challenges emerged concerning the surface and textural characterization of nanoporous materials exhibiting complex pore networks as can be found for instance in mesoporous zeolites. In fact, major advances have been made during recent years concerning the development of mesoporous zeolites which exhibit hierarchical pore structure with an appropriate balance of micropores (pore width less than 2 nm), mesopores (2-50 nm) and macropores (greater than 50 nm). The network of interconnected micro and mesopores facilitates efficient transfer of fluids to and from active sites located predominantly within the micropores leading to benefit to benefits in numerous catalytic applications.

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